By Krishna-kripa das
(September 2012, part one)
Wroclaw and Leipzig Ratha-yatras, Kirtana-Mela, Kirtan in Eastern Europe
(Sent from London, England, on November 2, 2012)
Where I Went and What I Did
After traveling with Janananda Goswami in Slovakia and Czech Republic, Dhruva, Trevor, Vamana, and I went to Poland for the Wroclaw (pronounced Vrotswav) Ratha-yatra and then onward to Germany for Kirtana-Mela, which culminated in a wonderful Leipzig Ratha-yatra. The next day Trevor and I joined the Nitai Gauranga harinama bus tour led by temple president Ananda Vardhana Prabhu of Talinn, Estonia, and returned to Wroclaw with them for an ecstatic harinama there with over twenty devotees. Trevor and I did harinama in Wroclaw two more days, and then went to Bydgoszcz (pronounced Bidgoshch) for harinama and an Ekadasi evening kirtana program. Then Trevor and I traveled south and participated in evening kirtana programs arranged by Punya Palaka Prabhu in Trutnov and Prague, Czech Republic, and held at restaurants Baladeva and Gauranga, respectively. Next we went to Modra, Slovakia, where Parmesvara and Gopali Prabhus have a very successful nama-hatta program at their home, and we had a lot of nice kirtana, and more people asked more questions than usual after the lecture. Then Trevor and I traveled by an overnight bus and then an overnight train to Crimea for Bhakti Sangama, popularly known as the Ukraine festival.
Highlights in the “Insights” section include some quotes from a Srila Prabhupada lecture and purport and some great appreciations of the chanting of the holy name by the senior devotees who came to Kirtana-Mela, such as Bhaktivaibhava Swami, Lokanatha Swami, Sacinandana Swami, Krishna Ksetra Prabhu, Kadamba Kanana Swami.
London - Nov. 2–3
New York State - Nov. 4 – 14
Jacksonville, Florida: Nov. 15
Gainesville, Florida: Nov. 16, 2012–April 2013
Of the three Wroclaw Ratha-yatras I have been on, this was one of the best. We went around the Rynek Square four times, more than some years, and the sound system was better. One year Trivikrama Swami had been there, and his enthusiasm in kirtana, would have certainly added some extra life, complementing the beautiful bhajanas and more mellow kirtana of Krishna Ksetra Prabhu, who played wonderfully on the stage in the show afterward, which was watched by a good crowd. There were not an unlimited number of invitations to the stage show afterward, but it was nearby, and there were flyers for those who showed obvious interest. Seeing I had flyers in my hand, some people even approached me asking for them, revealing their enthusiasm for the devotional event.
Kirtana-Mela in Germany
Kirtana-Mela in Germany was attended by fewer people than last year, but the people I talked to were all glad that they came. The fact that the fee was higher and its payment more enforced may be one reason why.
As a brahmacari I got a discount in exchange for doing a service which was to amount to four hours a day, but turned out to be less. I cut vegetables in the kitchen after lunch as usually my favorite kirana singers were in the morning or the evening. The second day we decided to have our own kirtana while chopping vegetables, and we went on for three hours, with different devotees taking turns leading. It felt good as we were there for kirtana and we were doing kirtana but at the same time were we serving the devotees who love kirtana by helping prepare their meals, and so we felt we got a special benediction.
Advaita Gauranga Prabhu, a Jayapataka Swami disciple from Ukraine who has lived in Germany a number of years, was inspired to organize a couple of harinamas, and other devotees inspired by those, organized one of their own the following day. The first was in Limbach, the town where the Kirtana-Mela was held.
The second harinama, the one in Chemnitz was attended by thirty-two devotees.
Several people took videos of us, and we passed out invitations to the upcoming Leipzig Ratha-yatra and biweekly Leipzig Sunday feast to the interested people.
There was also a harinama for the children around the compound where the Kirtana-Mela was held. The harinama was just after a drama about Lord Caitanya inspiring the animals in Jharikhanda Forest to chant and dance, and so many of the children were still wearing their animal costumes, so it was an especially wild sight! Several children took turns leading, including one girl who was dressed as Lord Caitanya, and it was beautiful to see. The following video shows just one of the child singers chanting in the parking lot, but before and after, the harinama visited other parts of the camp.
At Kirtana-Mela, B. B. Govinda Swami was beautiful to hear:
Lokanath Swami was full of transcendental life-giving energy, and he got a lot of people dancing. Candramauli and Janananda Maharajas’ excelled in the dancing department, inspiring others. Yadubara Prabhu chanted one of my favorite tunes in a beautiful way. Kadamba Kanana Swami led during the same time as we went out on the harinamas, and I felt bad to miss so many of his kirtanas, as he always seems to give it all he has in the way of enthusiasm. Madhava Prabhu’s singing reminded me of our trip on the Mexico bus tour where we got to hear him sing live practically every evening for three weeks. It is always a tease that now our encounters with him are just a few days here or there, never like the three-week stretch on the Mexican bus tour. Shyamananda Prabhu from Ireland put in more hours than all the male dancers and really excelled in that area. We feel gratitude toward all the kirtana leaders and responders who shared their enthusiasm for the holy name and to those great souls who helped organize the event.
Although we left early to take advantage of a ride to Leipzig with temple president, Sadbhuja Prabhu, we heard that Sacinandana Swami said at the morning class that that would be the last Kirtana-Mela there in Germany. Apparently not all of the organizers had known of his decision and many were upset as the festival was very successful from the point of view of the participants and the organizers had enjoyed the sacrifice to make it possible for all. We also appreciate all the work done by the largely Russian group of devotees who took a lot of trouble to give hundreds of people a chance to hear and chant the holy name for hours a day together and increase their inspiration in Krishna consciousness, and we hope that by the enthusiasm of the devotees it will continue in the future.
I have been to Leipzig Ratha-yatra three times and this year was clearly the best. As last year, it was right after the Kirtana-Mela so all the leaders and most of the responders were filled with enthusiasm from that event.
It reminded us of how Lord Caitanya and His associates did their year of nocturnal kirtanas at Srivasa Thakura’s house, and then brought their enthusiasm to the streets of Navadvipa in massive sankirtana. Leipzig has a small downtown, and it is easy to reach many people in that concentrated place.
I think of the many Ratha-yatras I have attended, Leipzig excels in the promotion department with three sizes of promotional literature describing the Ratha-yatra, the stage show after, the local temple programs, and the history of the event. Often people who see our Ratha-yatras are not invited to the stage show after nor the local temple programs and that is a great loss from the promotional point of view. Also an amazing large number of devotees volunteered to distribute the literature. The devotees also passed out fruit, cookies, and sweet balls, as the prasadam of Lord Jagannatha, and book distribution went on as well. There was always a crowd of people viewing the stage show which continued till almost 8:00 p.m. in the evening. The public feast was wonderful, with a curd and vegetable preparation and all the srikhand you could eat! Many, many thanks to Sadbhuja Prabhu and his team for putting on a wonderful Ratha-yatra event. Thanks to Vishnujana Prabhu (alias Harinama Ruci) for the pictures. More can be found on Facebook at: https://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.420275604702047.101837.100001588327802&type=3
A Day with the Nitai Gauranga Harinama Bus Party
Devotees, numbering about eighteen, from various countries, especially the Baltics, headed by Ananda Vardhana Prabhu of Tallinn, Estonia, have a six-month long traveling harinama bus program in the summer visiting different cities in Europe. Bhakta Trevor and I had the pleasure of traveling with them to Wroclaw after the Leipzig Ratha-yatra, and chanting with them there for three hours. Having an additional eighteen devotees to do harinama with for a day was a great blessing. There are many good singers, instrumentalists, and dancers in the party. We chanted in the Rynek Square where just one week before we had the Wroclaw Ratha-yatra, and it was great to be giving the people there another chance to connect with Krisna through kirtana. Several devotees distribute books and CDs simultaneously to spread the mercy and to maintain the program. Devotees in Wroclaw have open programs periodically at a venue other than the temple to attract new people, and we distributed many invitations to the upcoming one.
Other Harinamas in Wroclaw
Trevor and I did a couple days of three hours of harinama in Wroclaw afterward, the first day joined by Balarama Prabhu, who does programs in his hometown of Opole. You can see people are attracted by the chanting, even from a small party. The second day, we sang for an hour each, before, after, and during a semi-weekly prasadam distribution program, near popular Rynek Square. Many of the regular prasadam eaters were happy with the live kirtana. (Usually there is a tape playing.) One lady we met earlier on harinama, joined us again to listen, to take prasadam, to buy incense, and to give me the ultimate small donation, one grosze ($0.003). An enthusiastic personality in the prasadam program is a young lady named Vishnu Patni Dasi, from Pogorzelica, a coastal town in the north, who met Indradyumna Swami’s festival tour when she was sixteen. Now thirteen years later, she is initiated and assists greatly with the deity worship and prasadam distribution in our Wroclaw temple. I have seen her come many years on the tour festivals, and it is wonderful to witness the development of her enthusiasm for spiritual life.
Several years ago Parananda Prabhu, nama-hatta leader in Bydgoszcz, invited me to harinama in his town. I thought if I went there alone, the two of us would not make much of a party, but this year as Trevor was traveling with me, I decided to go there as we could have a better harinama.
We found a lot of people smiled, moved with the music, and seemed to appreciate the kirtana. One man who had an administrative role in one section of the city said he would like us to perform there sometime.
We found a lot of people smiled, moved with the music, and seemed to appreciate the kirtana. One man who had an administrative role in one section of the city said he would like us to perform there sometime.
We had a program with a few devotees, a talk, and a very lively kirtana, with a lot of dancing, and some fine Ekadasi prasadam.
I was happy that with the cooperation of Parananda Prabhu and Bhakta Trevor, I got to do harinama in yet another city. Thanks to Krsna Karsani dd, wife of Parananda Prabhu, for the photos. More can be found at on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.3584014324124.2131554.1386218307&type=3
Trutnov Evening Kirtana
Punya Palaka Prabhu, who organizes our Krishna camp at Trutnov Open Air Music Festival (the Czech Woodstock) arranged evening kirtanas in Trutnov and Prague.
It was an adventure getting to Trutnov as I was depending on a bus to cross the Polish-Czech border which never came. Turns out it only ran on Fridays, and it was Thursday. We walked about 4 km to the first Czech town but found the last bus for the day had already left. While Trevor was doing his voice lessons, and I was trying to get a ride, a couple stopped and offered to give us a ride to the next town to catch the bus. The guy knew a little English, and I knew a little Polish, and we managed to converse. They were impressed I knew as much Polish as I did, which is very slight. The lady was from Poland and the guy from Czech. She spoke Polish, and he spoke a combination of the two languages from living near the border. From my attempted conversation, they decided that they liked us and drove us the whole 16 km to Trutnov, and we were very grateful.
The kirtana was at the devotee restaurant there called Baladeva. We were happy to get some prasadam after our long journey.
Martin, the organizer of the Trutnov festival, and his kids came for the kirtana. He has a fascination for Lord Jagannatha’s smiling face which appears on all the promotional material for the festival. Martin’s kids amazed me because all though they could not have been more than four or five years old, they played some shakers in time with the music for over half an hour. Trevor did a good job leading some kirtana. A few other people came, and they all had a good time.
Prague Evening Kirtana
We went on the usual Friday harinama in Prague, and then did a kirtana program at the not-yet-opened-at-that-time restaurant known as Gauranga. There are so many Hare Krishna restaurants in Prague now, I lost count of them. The husband and wife running this new Gauranga restaurant were very hospitable. While traveling there from Govindas, we met a couple who had some interest in Hare Krishna, and they came along with us and stayed for the entire three and a half hour kirtana. The man was familiar with Hare Krishna, yet it was new for the woman, and you could see she really liked it, and I was happy that by the will of Providence, she got that opportunity.
Parmesvara and Gopali’s Program in Modra
Parmesvara and Gopali are very friendly and enthusiastic disciples of Kadamba Kanana Swami, and they have fifteen or twenty Krishna programs each year at their house in Modra, a suburb of Bratislava, the capital of Slovakia, under an hour from the Czech border.
I went there three and four years old, but was too busy the last two years, so I was happy to go again. Some of my friends from Czech Republic and Slovakia that I knew from the Polish Woodstock, the Czech Woodstock, and from Mayapur were there. There must have been about twenty people for the program which was an hour of kirtana and an hour of class. Valmiki Prabhu, who does kirtana at the Czech Woodstock, and Trevor chanted nicely, and then I spoke. I was pleased that several people asked nice questions. The prasadam was very nice and kept us going on the overnight bus ride to the Lvov, where we were to catch a train to Crimea for the Ukraine festival. There was a little time for an additional kirtana before we left on our trip, and I took advantage of that. Paramesvara Prabhu kindly asked his congregation to donate for my Ukraine trip as well as helping out himself, and I offer thanks to all the people who helped out in that way.
from a recorded lecture on Srimad-Bhagavatam.
It is the duty of the father to instruct his the sons in the matter of the aim of life. Human life is meant for tapasya (austerity), not to imitate the hogs and dogs. People do not want to hear this, but because we are servants of Krishna we must instruct them anyway.
By our association with different modes of nature we are producing our next body.
The first instruction in Bhagavad-gta is “you are eternal.” Hearing this the intelligent person asks, “Why am I dying?”
Mukti means attaining your original form.
Although there are many processes for self-realization mentioned in Bhagavat-gita, Krishna recommends if you want to know Him, you should execute bhakti.
Any child can do it. If a child sees the form of Krishna in the temple, he can remember that form. Then one can do a little offering. A little flower, fruit, water.
To miss this opportunity to attain your original form by the simple practice of bhakti is suicidal.
If you accept something as prasadam, the mercy of the Lord, then there is no reaction, but if you accept something for your own enjoyment, you become entangled.
Ashram, whether brahmacari, grhastha, or sannyasa, means consciousness of Krishna is there.
You are kicked by the material nature, and you are master? Why are you so falsely proud?
from Sri Caitanya-caritamrita, Adi-lila 8.78:
“To engage in the service of the Lord is the natural function of the living entity, but because he is covered by the influence of maya, the material energy, he thinks it to be a very difficult task. But if he places himself under the guidance of a spiritual master and does everything sincerely, immediately the Lord, who is situated within everyone’s heart, dictates how to serve Him (dadami buddhi-yogam tam). The Lord gives this direction, and thus the devotee’s life becomes perfect.”
Sometimes hearing is stressed and sometimes chanting is stressed. Why both? Because they both go together.
When Srila Prabhupada heard George Harrison and John Lennon liked to chant Hare Krishna, he invited them to lead the Ratha-yatra procession in London. Unfortunately that did not happen.
In the early days, we chanted minimum six or eight hours a day. We literally witnessed miracles right on the street.
One time a very rough looking person came toward the party, and I worried what would happen. Then he slipped and fell on his head, and walked away.
Once one devotee was speaking and stressing preaching, the brhad-mrdanga. Srila Prabhupada said, “If you do not know how to play the small mrdanga, how will you play the big mrdanga.” In other words if we are not attracted to Hare Krishna, how will we inspire others.
Association with devotees leads to attraction to chanting the holy name, and so it can be conceived of as most important. The Bhagavatam declares glories of the holy name. The dhama is constantly vibrating the holy name of the Lord. The mantras used in deity worship are filled with Krishna’s names. Also Jiva Goswami and Hari-bhakta-vilasa say deity worship should be accompanied by the chanting of the holy name.
There is no other religious practice as pure as the chanting of the holy name.
Four Vishnudutas came because Ajamila chanted the four syllables of Narayana. They opposed the three Yamaduta who came because Ajamila commited sins with body, mind, and words.
Although one may commit offenses, the solution is never to stop chanting. One must submit to the holy name, ask for forgiveness, and continue chanting.
Srila Prabhupada says our mauna vrata (vow of silence) is not to speak until we finish chanting our 16 rounds each day.
We are chanting the same mantra that made Lord Caitanya mad, and our goal is also to become mad with love for God.
Our madness in this world is a perverted reflection of the madness of the spiritual world.
Lord Caitanya had a night club, where they chanted and danced all night [Srivasa Angam]. You can say that Kirtana-Mela started at Srivasa Angam.
Wherever there is Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, there is Kirtana-Mela. Those who come in contact with Him immediately begin chanting and dancing.
This Hare Krishna mantra is a Radha Krishna mantra, so if you chant it your ultimate destination will be Vrndavana.
The Lord has come to stop our endeavors for bhukti, mukti, and siddhi?sense enjoyment, liberation, and mystic power.
Lord Caitanya has talked less and chanted more.
Lord Caitanya even made the animals mad with love of God. The deer and tigers were embracing and kissing.
If you want to become fearless, chant Hare Krishna (etan nirvidyamanamam . . . ).
We are in the Krishna sun, and we are in the present?no past, no future.
There was left over nectar from the Kumbha-mela pot, and the people possessing it proposed to Sukadeva Goswami that he give some to Maharaja Pariksit in exchange for Krishna-katha. Sukadeva Goswami’s response was in effect, “Get lost.” Why? Because they committed a big offense comparing narrations of Krishna to fruitive activities.
Bring your attention, your everything to the first name, the first “Hare.” If you pay attention to the first “Hare,” by the grace of Radharani, you will see that you can easily pay attention to the entire mantra. It will be as effortless as swimming downstream with the current of Mother Ganges. We have to start somewhere, so start with the first “Hare.”
Satsvarupa Dasa Goswami:
from his autobiography:
[Returning from a UN prayer meeting,] Swamiji said, “They will never have peace unless they chant and give up their sinful activities.”
from ISKCON in the 1970s:
In India, ISKCON published a book listing the names of every Indian scholar who supported us and his address. It was suggested that we do the same thing in America for the Americans. I suggested that this might be dangerous in America because our enemies had already taken the names of whatever professors we have published and written to them. They have slandered and blasphemed our movement to try to turn them away from us, and it hasn’t been good. When Prabhupada heard that, he immediately agreed that it would not be a good idea to publish a book like that in America. He said, ‘It will damage us by counter-propaganda. Yes, Canakya Pandita says don’t disclose your secrets, the enemy will take advantage.’ I asked Prabhupada, ‘But what about the injunction that a devotee should treat his enemy so openly that he should be willing to reveal everything to him?’ Prabhupada said that the days are different now in Kali-yuga. If the other party are cheaters, I shall cheat; otherwise they will take advantage.
He asked how much fifty books cost. He was told $250. ‘Is that much for an American? Make a policy and organization, whereby you introduce the books in every home?a full set in every home. Everyone can afford $250. The GBC should make such a plan. Print the full sets in every language. You have to use your intelligence. You have to find out how to remove $250 from their pockets and give them fifty books. They won’t be cheated. They will gain greater value for their lives. Don’t think your business is finished. There’s much work ahead. This is the water of the seed which has already taken root. Distribute more and more books and go on opening more centers. People should hear about us. In this way you have to protect the seed that is already planted there.’
“I told him the leaders were not enthusiastic about this outpost in Bhuvanesvara. He said, ‘Why not? This is the capital of Orissa. People are coming here. We have to have centers in every town, and even if it is not a big center, some have to work and stay here. Even if the people are coming every night only to eat kichari, that is also preaching.’
“Then he said that, ‘Our program for everywhere is kirtana and prasadam distribution. We distribute books and the collection is to support these things, kirtana and prasadam distribution.’ I mentioned that in America over the years, the devotees are not seen in the streets shaven-headed holding kirtana. He said, ‘It is not necessary to stress chanting in the streets. Distribute books and invite them to come for the love feast. They will see us by coming to the temple and joining in the kirtana.’”
Krishna Ksetra Prabhu:
Kirtana comes from kirti which means “fame” and implies that it should be spread.
Hobbs says, “Memory is the fading of experience.”
I see memories as being like cooking and the flavors are coming out.
Jiva Goswami says to make arcana (deity worship) complete we should have kirtana (chanting of the glories of God) before, after, and during the worship.
Narada Muni says the best way to see the Lord is to hear the Lord and to chant His name.
Vandanam (offering prayers) is part of arcanam (deity worship).
With gratitude we are acknowledging we are receptacles for the Lord’s mercy, and thus we become eligible to receive more mercy.
Srila Prabhupada indicated that we have one prayer, “O Lord, O energy of Lord, please engage us in eternal loving devotional service.”
The Hare Krishna mantra is in the vocative, calling out to Krishna. And when you call out, you hope to get a response. Not that you are so inattentive, you do not notice if there is any response or not.
Coming to Kirtana Mela, we get a sense that, “We have arrived. This is what it is all about.”
Q: How to recognize Krishna’s response?
A: By hearing the response of the kirtana of devotees we are hearing Krishna response to our chanting. By seeing how Krishna acts in our life is another way.
Kadamba Kanana Swami:
Generally we pray to the Lord to free ourselves from anxiety, but here Haridasa Thakura is desiring that the Lord be free from anxiety.
Those living entities who can’t chant, like the trees, are purified by the chanting of others.
For the materialists in their festivals there is just the pleasure of the moment, but for the devotees, there is the pleasure of the moment plus the eternal spiritual benefit. For us the benefit does not end when the kirtana (chanting) ends.
When Radha discovers a quality of Krishna, Her love embraces it. This continues more and more.
Most of the things I was asked to do as a devotee, I did not want to do, but I did them because it looked bad to say no. And people would say you have done so wonderfully, but I was just doing it because I was told to.
In Sri Caitanya-caritamrita it is said Lord Jagannatha is the most merciful deity.
If your ticket is booked to leave before the Ratha-yatra [at the end of the Kirtana-Mela], it is a useless ticket. Throw it away.
Externally Srivasa Thakura was a party animal until an astrologer told him he had one year to live and he was wasting his life. Then he engaged in the devotional service day and night. One night he was hearing Srimad-Bhagavatam and felt he difficulty breathing so he went to a balcony and in his weakened condition he fell off the balcony. He was caught by an unknown person who disappeared in the crowd. That was on the day he was supposed to die. The next morning the first book Srivasa Thakura saw was the Brhan-Naradiya Purana and the verse, harer nama harer nama, and Srivas Thakura began having kirtana every night at his home.
In a Caitanya-caritamrita purport, Srila Prabhupada tells whenever there are the activities of the Sunday feast Lord Caitanya is personally present. There is a special guest at the Sunday feast [Lord Caitanya]!
So here at Kirtana-Mela Lord Caitanya is also personally present. We may not see.
Our habits can be purified. We can be what we are, but purified. Purified by the chanting. May we leave here with wave of enthusiasm and end our festival with Ratha-yatra. Tell those who stayed home they made a mistake. Tell our friends who stayed home to watch it on the Internet.
The faithful can mean full of faith or loyal, and as faith increases we can be more loyal.
We have moments that give us faith and keep us going.
How can you miss the Ratha-yatra? How can use miss the dessert? You had the curd subji, but you can't have the dessert?
We have come here not just to taste the nectar we know but also the nectar we do not know.
If you want to see the entire lecture as a video, click below:
Ananda Caitanya Prabhu:
Without being humble we cannot perform sacrifice.
Ratha-yatra is meant for engaging the people in general in the auspicious congregational chanting of the holy name.
In Puri almost all the attenders of Ratha-yatra are devotees, but in the West we see the extent of Lord Jagannatha’s mercy.
In Lithuania one person came to the temple and inquired, “Can I participate in hearing, chanting, and worshiping with you?” “Yes,” we replied, “but how did you hear about it?” The person explained, “Someone asked me to guard his books one December ten years ago . . .”
Compassion arises when we are happy in Krishna consciousness, and when we see how everyone is suffering.
Lord Brahma says, “O great actor, my Lord, all these poor creatures are constantly perplexed by hunger, thirst, severe cold, secretion and bile, attacked by coughing winter, blasting summer, rains and many other disturbing elements, and overwhelmed by strong sex urges and indefatigable anger. I take pity on them, and I am very much aggrieved for them.” (Srimad-Bhagavatam 3.9.8)
Krishna teaches that to the extent the you give up the desire to enjoy the fruits of your actions you can be peaceful.
The lotus relies on the sun although the sun is so very far away.
When you are self-centered cooperation is impossible, but for those who are Krishna centered, cooperation is possible.
Strive for the association of pure unalloyed devotees, and you will receive the inspiration.
Ananta Vardhana Prabhu:
Lord Caitanya forbade his followers from making fun of the defeated Kesvava Kasmiri, showing that although the Lord was victorious, He was not proud.
When Shiva was bewildered by Mohini, he did not feel angry at the Lord, but rather appreciated the greatness of the Lord.
bhakti-sadhana-srestha sunite haila mana
prabhu upadesa kaila nama-sankirtana
“Then the Bhattacarya asked Caitanya Mahaprabhu, ‘Which item is most important in the execution of devotional service?’ The Lord replied that the most important item was the chanting of the holy name of the Lord.” (Sri Caitanya-caritmrita, Madhya 6.241)